Three main types of brick are un-fired, fired, and chemically set bricks. Each type is manufactured differently.
Unfired bricks are made from a wet, clay soil mixed with chaff or similar binders.
Fired bricks are burned in a furnace which makes them hardy.
Normally, the brick consists of the following components:
- Silica (sand) – 50% to 60% by weight
- Alumina (clay) – 20% to 30% by weight
- Lime – 2 to 5% by weight
- Iron oxide – ≤ 7% by weight
- Magnesia – less than 1% by weight
Chemically set bricks:
In this model bricks not fired but may have the curing process accelerated by the application of heat and pressure in an autoclave.
In addition to the listed models, there are thousands of types of bricks that are named for their use, size, quality, texture, and materials.
Some models of bricks are face-brick, Hollow, Keyed – indentations, Paving and thin-brick.
- Face – A brick used on exterior surfaces
- Hollow – not solid, the holes are less than 25% of the brick volume
- Perforated – holes greater than 25% of the brick volume
- Keyed – indentations in at least one face and an end to be used with rendering and plastering
- Paving – brick used to be in ground contact as a walkway or roadway
- Thin – brick with normal height and length but thin width to be used as a cover
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